Scientific Publications

Scientific Publications

ILSI Europe disseminates science by publishing articles on original research, literature reviews and gap analyses, and meeting proceedings in peer-reviewed journals with high impact factors. ILSI Europe also publishes books, monographs, white papers, and other reports.

Discover below our latest scientific publications.

All Publications

Infant fat mass and later child and adolescent health outcomes: a systematic review

Obesity and excess adiposity are leading causes of metabolic and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Early identification of individuals at risk is key for preventive strategies. We examined the relationship between infant body composition (0–2 years of age) and later (>2 years) health outcomes using a systematic review.

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Small intestine vs. colon ecology and physiology: Why it matters in probiotic administration

We provide a detailed review unfolding how the physiological and anatomical differences between the small and large intestine affect gut microbiota composition, function, and plasticity. This information is key to understanding how gut microbiota manipulation, including probiotic administration, may strain-dependently transform host-microbe interactions at defined locations.

Read more

An Overview of Approaches for Analysing NIAS from different FCMs

This overview gives an excellent introduction to analysing NIAS. It considers non-harmonised FCMs, highlighting various FCMs and their unique requirements for analysis of migrants (IAS (Intentionally Added Substances) or NIAS). It presents background information on different test conditions for the different FCMs and why the standard tests used for plastics outlined in the Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011 (14 January 2011 on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food) are inappropriate in some instances for many non-harmonised FCMs.

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The growing world population, changing dietary habits, and increasing pressure on agricultural resources are drivers for the development of novel foods (including new protein sources as well as existing protein sources that are produced or used in an alternative way or in a different concentration). These changes, coupled with consumer inclination to adopt new dietary trends, may heighten the intake of unfamiliar proteins, or escalate consumption of specific ones, potentially amplifying the prevalence of known and undiscovered food allergies. Assessing the allergenicity of novel or modified protein-based foods encounters several challenges, including uncertainty surrounding acceptable risks and assessment criteria for determining safety. Moreover, the available methodological tools for gathering supportive data exhibit significant gaps. This paper synthesises these challenges, addressing the varied interpretations of "safe" across jurisdictions and societal attitudes towards allergenic risk. It proposes a comprehensive two-part framework for allergenicity assessment: the first part emphasises systematic consideration of knowledge and data requirements, while the second part proposes the application of a generic assessment approach, integrating a Threshold of Allergological Concern. This combined framework highlights areas that require attention to bridge knowledge and data gaps, and it delineates research priorities for its development and implementation.

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Objective

Obesity and excess adiposity are leading causes of metabolic and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Early identification of individuals at risk is key for preventive strategies. We examined the relationship between infant body composition (0-2 years of age) and later (>2 years) health outcomes using a systematic review.

Design

We preregistered the study on PROSPERO (ID 288013) and searched Embase, PubMed and Cochrane databases for English language publications using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms 'infant' and 'body composition' and 'risk' between January 1946 and February 2022. We included studies which assessed infant body composition using predetermined in vivo methods other than body mass index (BMI).

Results

We identified 6015 articles. After abstract screening to assess eligibility, we reviewed 130 full text publications. 30 were included in the final assessment and narrative synthesis. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity of results. All 30 studies were of high quality and reported associations between infant body composition and 19 different health outcomes after 2 years of age. Outcome measurements ranged from 2 years to 16 years. The strongest associations were found between infant fat mass and later fat mass (7 studies), and later BMI (5 studies). For 11 of the outcomes assessed, there was no relationship to infant adiposity detected.

Conclusions

Current evidence, from a small number of studies, suggests a positive association between infant adiposity and future adiposity or BMI, but the validity of infant body composition as a biomarker of future health remains inconclusive. Carefully designed, standardised studies are required to identify the value of infant body composition for predicting later health.

Download the full article here.

Download the article one-pager below

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Research on gut microbiota has generally focused on fecal samples, representing luminal content of the large intestine. However, nutrient uptake is restricted to the small intestine. Abundant immune cell populations at this anatomical site combined with diminished mucus secretion and looser junctions (partly to allow for more efficient fluid and nutrient absorption) also results in intimate host-microbe interactions despite more rapid transit. It is thus crucial to dissect key differences in both ecology and physiology between small and large intestine to better leverage the immense potential of human gut microbiota imprinting, including probiotic engraftment at biological sensible niches. Here, we provide a detailed review unfolding how the physiological and anatomical differences between the small and large intestine affect gut microbiota composition, function, and plasticity. This information is key to understanding how gut microbiota manipulation, including probiotic administration, may strain-dependently transform host-microbe interactions at defined locations.

This review focusses its narrative on the intimate relationship between the host and its bacterial constituents of the small and large intestine.

Dowload the full paper

or click on the images below to download the EG one-pager summary and graphical abstract

Commissioned by the Probiotics Task Force 

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The growing world population, changing dietary habits, and increasing pressure on agricultural resources are drivers for the development of novel foods (including new protein sources as well as existing protein sources that are produced or used in an alternative way or in a different concentration). These changes, coupled with consumer inclination to adopt new dietary trends, may heighten the intake of unfamiliar proteins, or escalate consumption of specific ones, potentially amplifying the prevalence of known and undiscovered food allergies. Assessing the allergenicity of novel or modified protein-based foods encounters several challenges, including uncertainty surrounding acceptable risks and assessment criteria for determining safety. Moreover, the available methodological tools for gathering supportive data exhibit significant gaps. This paper synthesises these challenges, addressing the varied interpretations of "safe" across jurisdictions and societal attitudes towards allergenic risk. It proposes a comprehensive two-part framework for allergenicity assessment: the first part emphasises systematic consideration of knowledge and data requirements, while the second part proposes the application of a generic assessment approach, integrating a Threshold of Allergological Concern. This combined framework highlights areas that require attention to bridge knowledge and data gaps, and it delineates research priorities for its development and implementation.

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