Scientific Publications

ILSI Europe disseminates science by publishing articles on original research, literature reviews and gap analyses, and meeting proceedings in peer-reviewed journals.  ILSI Europe also publishes books, monographs, white papers, and other reports.

All Publications

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Early Nutrition and Long-Term Health

The intestinal microbiota plays a major role in infant health and development. However, the role of the breastmilk microbiota in infant gut colonisation remains unclear. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the composition of the breastmilk microbiota and evidence for transfer to/colonisation of the infant gut. Searches were performed using PUBMED, OVID, LILACS and PROQUEST from inception until 18th March 2020 with a PUBMED update to December 2021. 88 full texts were evaluated before final critique based on study power, sample contamination avoidance, storage, purification process, DNA extraction/analysis, and consideration of maternal health and other potential confounders. Risk of skin contamination was reduced mainly by breast cleaning and rejecting the first milk drops. Sample storage, DNA extraction and bioinformatics varied. Several studies stored samples under conditions that may selectively impact bacterial DNA preservation, others used preculture reducing reliability. Only 15 studies, with acceptable sample size, handling, extraction, and bacterial analysis, considered transfer of bacteria to the infant. Three reported bacterial transfer from infant to breastmilk. Despite consistent evidence for the breastmilk microbiota, and recent studies using improved methods to investigate factors affecting its composition, few studies adequately considered transfer to the infant gut providing very little evidence for effective impact on gut colonisation.

Keywords Expand

Microbiota, infant, breast milk, gut colonisation, systematic review

To download this open-access article, please click here.

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Historically, food fraud was a major public health concern which helped drive the development of early food regulations in many markets including the US and EU market. In the past 10 years, the integrity of food chains with respect to food fraud has again been questioned due to high profile food fraud cases. We provide an overview of the resulting numerous authoritative activities underway within different regions to counter food fraud, and we describe the guidance available to the industry to understand how to assess the vulnerability of their businesses and implement appropriate mitigation. We describe how such controls should be an extension of those already in place to manage wider aspects of food authenticity, and we provide an overview of relevant analytical tools available to food operators and authorities to protect supply chains.

Keywords Expand

Food authenticity, Food fraud, Vulnerability assessment

To download this open-access article, please click here.

[post_title] => Food inauthenticity: Authority activities, guidance for food operators, and mitigation tools [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => food-in-authenticity-authority-activities-guidance-for-food-operators-and-mitigation-tools [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-10-19 10:36:26 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-10-19 10:36:26 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://ilsi.eu/?post_type=publication&p=12147 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publication [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [2] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 12145 [post_author] => 24 [post_date] => 2022-10-19 07:12:59 [post_date_gmt] => 2022-10-19 07:12:59 [post_content] =>

Health Benefits Assessment of Foods

GUT MICROBIOME AND HEALTH

Diet related non-communicable diseases (NCDs), as well as micronutrient deficiencies, are of widespread and growing importance to public health. Authorities are developing programs to improve nutrient intakes via foods. To estimate the potential health and economic impact of these programs there is a wide variety of models. The aim of this review is to evaluate existing models to estimate the health and/or economic impact of nutrition interventions with a focus on reducing salt and sugar intake and increasing vitamin D, iron, and folate/folic acid intake. The protocol of this systematic review has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO: CRD42016050873). The final search was conducted on PubMed and Scopus electronic databases and search strings were developed for salt/sodium, sugar, vitamin D, iron, and folic acid intake. Predefined criteria related to scientific quality, applicability, and funding/interest were used to evaluate the publications. In total 122 publications were included for a critical appraisal: 45 for salt/sodium, 61 for sugar, 4 for vitamin D, 9 for folic acid, and 3 for iron. The complexity of modelling the health and economic impact of nutrition interventions is dependent on the purpose and data availability. Although most of the models have the potential to provide projections of future impact, the methodological challenges are considerable. There is a substantial need for more guidance and standardization for future modelling, to compare results of different studies and draw conclusions about the health and economic impact of nutrition interventions.

To download this open-access article, please click here.

This work was commissioned by the Health Benefits Assessment of Foods Task Force.

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Nutrition and Brain Health

NUTRITION, DEVELOPMENT& HEALTHY AGEING

The EAT-Lancet Commission devised a sustainable reference diet with the aim of reducing the incidence of non-communicable diseases and mortality globally while improving food system sustainability. The extent to which the reference diet supports cognitive function across the life course, however, has not yet been evaluated. This Review assesses the evidence for diet supporting cognitive function from childhood into old age. A comprehensive but non-exhaustive literature search was done, synthesising studies that investigated the effect of whole foods on cognition in healthy, community-dwelling human participants. We found that the current evidence base is weak with mixed conclusions and multiple methodological caveats, which precludes strong conclusions pertaining to the suitability of dietary recommendations for each food group per age group. Long-term intervention and prospective cohort studies are needed to reduce this knowledge deficit. Revising dietary recommendations with the aim of maintaining an adequate nutrient intake to sustain healthy cognitive function across the life course could be worthwhile. This Review outlines recommendations for future work to help improve the current knowledge deficit regarding dietary intake and cognitive function across the life course and its implications for dietary guidelines such as the EAT-Lancet Commission.

To download this open-access article, please click here.

This work was commissioned by the Nutrition and Brain Health Task Force.

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Please click here to access the Whitepaper

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Early Nutrition and Long-Term Health

The intestinal microbiota plays a major role in infant health and development. However, the role of the breastmilk microbiota in infant gut colonisation remains unclear. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the composition of the breastmilk microbiota and evidence for transfer to/colonisation of the infant gut. Searches were performed using PUBMED, OVID, LILACS and PROQUEST from inception until 18th March 2020 with a PUBMED update to December 2021. 88 full texts were evaluated before final critique based on study power, sample contamination avoidance, storage, purification process, DNA extraction/analysis, and consideration of maternal health and other potential confounders. Risk of skin contamination was reduced mainly by breast cleaning and rejecting the first milk drops. Sample storage, DNA extraction and bioinformatics varied. Several studies stored samples under conditions that may selectively impact bacterial DNA preservation, others used preculture reducing reliability. Only 15 studies, with acceptable sample size, handling, extraction, and bacterial analysis, considered transfer of bacteria to the infant. Three reported bacterial transfer from infant to breastmilk. Despite consistent evidence for the breastmilk microbiota, and recent studies using improved methods to investigate factors affecting its composition, few studies adequately considered transfer to the infant gut providing very little evidence for effective impact on gut colonisation.

Keywords Expand

Microbiota, infant, breast milk, gut colonisation, systematic review

To download this open-access article, please click here.

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