To summarize current knowledge and gaps regarding the role of postprandial glycaemic response in the paediatric population, a workshop was organized in June 2021 by the European branch of the International Life Science Institute (ILSI). This virtual event comprised of talks given by experts followed by in-depth discussions in breakout sessions with workshop participants. The main pre-specified topics addressed by the workshop organizing committee to the invited speakers and the workshop participants were: (1) the role of glycaemic responses for paediatric health, based on mechanistic insights from animal and human data, and long-term evidence from observational and intervention studies in paediatric populations, and (2) changes in metabolism and changes in dietary needs from infancy to adolescence. Each talk as well as the discussions were summarised, including the main identified research gaps. The workshop led to the consensus on the crucial role on health of postprandial glycaemic response in paediatric population. However, a lack of scientific data has been identified regarding detailed glucose and insulin profiles in response to foods commonly consumed by paediatric populations, as well as a lack of long-term evidence including the need for suitable predictors during childhood and adolescence to anticipate health effects during adulthood.
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