Investigating the best approaches and tools for food intake and dietary exposure assessment

Background

As the saying goes ‘we are what we eat’, but how well do we really know the composition of our food and importantly, how much of it do we actually eat? Assessing the exposure of individuals to the many different substances in food (e.g. whether they are intentionally or non-intentionally added) is a key component of any risk-benefit assessment for ensuring safe and healthy food for the consumer.

Objectives

The Dietary Intake and Exposure Task Force reviews, evaluates and develops methods to estimate intake of energy, nutrients, food ingredients such as food additives, chemical contaminants, and other substances in the diet. By developing more realistic intake and exposure scenarios of what Europeans eat, the task force aims to improve the estimates of dietary intake and contribute to more relevant nutrition and health recommendations as well as safety assessments.

Impact

In a recent publication on ‘Assessing and Reporting Uncertainties in Dietary Exposure Analysis – Mapping of Uncertainties in a Tiered Approach’ (S. Kettler et al., 2015), the uncertainties relating to dietary exposure analysis were mapped in a tiered approach, which is crucial for making informed risk management decisions. This article was downloaded or viewed about 900 times in the first three months after its publication (94% downloads from the public sector), with a total of 3,808 views since it became available online. Furthermore, it was shared with EFSA in response to a public consultation call in September 2015.

The GUIDEA (Guidance for Dietary Intake Exposure Assessment) website developed by this task force, is a practical online guide and information sharing knowledge and collaboration tool for food intake and dietary exposure assessments (J. Howlett, et al. 2013).

What’s New

New Expert Group on ‘Evaluation of New Methods for Dietary Intake Assessment’.

New article on ‘Recording of Fluid, Beverage and Water Intake at Population Level in Europe’ (J. Gandy et al., 2016) has been published by British Journal of Nutrition.

New Activity Proposal on ‘Additive Occurrence and Consumer Loyalty’ is under development. This expert group will examine the feasibility of obtaining data on the frequency of occurrence of additives in food and quantitative data on product loyalty, and the potential for incorporating these data into dietary exposure modelling tools.

For more detailed information, please contact Dr Bettina Schelkle at bschelkle@ilsieurope.be

Task Force Members

Dr Alison Eldridge – Chair Nestlé CH
Ms Sue O’Hagan – Vice-Chair PepsiCo International UK
Dr Jeanne de Vries – Co-Chair University of Wageningen NL
Dr Burco Aksoy Ülker Bisküvi TR
Dr Christian Baz Ajinomoto Europe BE
Dr Gerhard Gans DSM CH
Dr Laurent Le Bellego Danone FR
Dr Jürgen Schnabel Givaudan International CH
Dr Benjamin Smith Firmenich US
Dr David Tennant Scientific Advisor UK
TBD The Coca-Cola Company BE
Dr Bettina Schelkle ILSI Europe BE

 

Expert Groups

Evaluation of New Methods for Dietary Intake Assessment – NEW

Objectives

Many new tools and applications are being developed to assess the diets of individuals and for research aims. However, these new technologies for diet assessment vary widely in terms of sources and quality of data. This activity will focus on understanding the relative merits of specific new tools and applications currently available for dietary intake assessment, such as mobile phone applications, wearable devices, digital cameras and sensors.

Activity

A critical up-to-date evaluation is being conducted on the uses, limitations, and applicability of these new tools and their implementation in research, also taking into account their suitability for use with different populations and food categories. Prime examples are being identified within each category, and information from the manufacturers will be used to help identify the merits and shortcomings of each tool, especially relating to individual feedback and data collection.

Output

This activity will help relevant stakeholders to better understand these tools and their strengths, shortcomings and applicability. Ultimately, this project will provide guidelines and criteria for developers that will lead to the improved quality of dietary intake assessment tools.

Identifying Practical Ways of Determining Uncertainties in Food Intake Assessments

Objectives

The expert group aims to review and assess existing data on methods available for determining uncertainties in food intake assessments, both at European and international levels.

Activity

Building on the GUIDEA (Guidance for Dietary Intake Exposure Assessment) initiative, this activity describes the uncertainties present in various dietary exposure assessments and classifies these uncertainties to support more accurate food intake and dietary exposure assessments. A case study is being used to discuss and map relevant uncertainties in specific assessment methodologies and models used for a range of food components.

Output

First of all, uncertainties in food and food ingredients intake assessments were mapped and analysed. In addition, methods were assessed to characterise the uncertainties for decision makers and the model of uncertainty tables integrated for the different tiers of a dietary exposure assessment. A draft manuscript was discussed at the ILSI Europe workshop on ‘Assessing and Reporting Uncertainties in Dietary Exposure Analysis’ (6 February 2014, Brussels, Belgium), with the participation of key stakeholders including the European Commission, EFSA, FAO and WHO. Based on the feedback received, it was decided to prepare two publications. The first article describes the mapping of uncertainties in a tiered approach and was downloaded / viewed about 900 times in the first three months after its publication (94% downloads from the public sector) with a total of 3,808 views since it became available online.

The outcomes have also been disseminated at international conferences, including the 12th European Nutrition Conference FENS 2015 (20-23 October 2015, Berlin, Germany) and the 9th International Conference on Diet and Activity Methods ICDAM 2015 (1-3 September 2015, Brisbane, Australia). Additionally, the publication was shared with EFSA in response to a public consultation call in September 2015. The second manuscript, which is about to be submitted, focuses on the practical application (aspartame case study), graphical representation and communication of uncertainties.

Adequate Methodologies for Recording Fluid and Water Intake at Population Level – COMPLETED

Objectives

Although a global issue, fluid intake is extremely topical at the moment in Europe in light of EFSA’s initiatives to review their dietary exposure survey methodologies and gather new pan-European data. The project aimed to review and improve methodologies to accurately assess water and fluid intake as this topic has received very little attention in national food surveys.

Activity

The expert group reviewed and assessed the current methodologies used in national dietary surveys to capture fluid and water intake. Twenty-one European countries were surveyed using an electronic questionnaire and in total, ten surveys were completed. A variety of methods were reported for recording total water, beverages and fluid intakes; although the methods seemed to be representative of the population in terms of age and socio-economic status, none of them were validated to assess water and fluid intakes, and the methods used to record liquid foods were inconsistent.

Expected Output

This activity aimed to establish a consensus on the inadequacy of current food intake methodologies to accurately record fluid and water intake. Further investigation and guidelines for a harmonised approach to surveying and quantifying water and fluid intake have been proposed as part of this activity, in order to improve fluid intake records in the future. The manuscript has recently been published at the British Journal of Nutrition and the main outcomes were presented at the 12th European Nutrition Conference FENS 2015 (22 October 2015, Berlin, Germany), within the session organised by the Food Intake Methodology Task Force.

GUIDEA : Guidance for Dietary Intake Exposure Assessment

Objectives

This activity is working towards producing a practical online guide for conducting intake and exposure assessments. The goal is to encourage harmonisation of practices for determining assessments, leading to better health recommendations.

Activity

The experts have developed a web-based database www.ilsi-guidea.org which is a centralised and comprehensive platform for sharing information and discussing approaches on the exposure assessment of individuals to substances in foods, such as migrates from food additives, nutrients, packaging and pesticides.

Output

This online resource aims to be a single, interactive source of reference covering all aspects of the methods, principles and approaches used to conduct and interpret dietary intake and exposure assessments on the complete range of components in the diet. The article published in Food and Nutrition Sciences gives a comprehensive overview of GUIDEA and the principles on which it was constructed. More information can also be found on our GUIDEA website.

Timeline

GUIDEA is an initiative of global relevance, thus the inclusion of new knowledge covering regional needs would significantly increase its value. Exploring possibilities to develop GUIDEA within the One ILSI approach, ILSI Europe presented the project at the ILSI Annual Meeting in January 2015 and some branches expressed interest in being involved. ILSI Europe has now decided to stop its involvement in the GUIDEA project and plans for the long-term sustainability and further development of this initiative are now being investigated. Among them, ILSI Europe has recently offered this major initiative to volunteering ILSI branches, as this would be an outstanding opportunity to foster an improved understanding and harmonisation of dietary exposure/intake assessment methodologies, in the context of an international knowledge network.

Expert Group Members

Evaluation of New Methods for Dietary Intake Assessment – NEW

Dr Alison Eldridge – Chair Nestlé CH
Prof. Janet Cade – Vice-Chair University of Leeds UK
Dr Jeanne de Vries University of Wageningen NL
Prof. Mike Gibney University College Dublin IE
Dr Mirjana Gurinović University of Belgrade RS
Dr Anne-Kathrin Illner Polytechnic Institute LaSalle Beauvais FR
Dr Carmen Piernas-Sanchez Unversity of Oxford UK
Dr Benjamin Smith Firmenich US
Dr Bettina Schelkle ILSI Europe BE

Identifying Practical Ways of Determining Uncertainties in Food Intake Assessments

Prof. Diána Bánáti ILSI Europe BE
Dr Marc Kennedy The Food & Environment Research Agency (FERA) UK
Dr Susanne Kettler BE
Prof. Jürgen König University of Vienna AT
Mr Cronan McNamara Creme Global IE
Dr Jürgen Schnabel Givaudan International CH
Dr Benjamin Smith Firmenich US
Dr Corinne Sprong National Institute of Public Health & the Environment (RIVM) NL
Dr David Tennant Scientific Advisor UK
Dr Bettina Schelkle ILSI Europe BE

Adequate Methodologies for Recording Fluid and Water Intake at Population Level – COMPLETED

Dr Laurent Le Bellego – Chair Danone FR
Dr Alison Eldridge Nestlé CH
Dr Joan Gandy British Dietetic Association UK
Prof. Jürgen König University of Vienna AT
Dr Ana Piekarz The Coca-Cola Company BE
Mr Gabriel Tavoularis Centre de Recherche pour l’Etude et l’Observation des Conditions de Vie (Cérdoc) FR
Dr Daveid Tennant Scientific Advisor UK
Dr Bettina Schelkle ILSI Europe BE

GUIDEA : GUIdance for Dietary Intake Exposure Assessment

Dr David Tennant – Chair Scientific Advisor UK
Dr Jeanne de Vries University of Wageningen NL
Dr Alison Eldridge Nestlé CH
Dr Astrid Kruizinga The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) NL
Dr Benjamin Smith Firmenich US
Dr Bettina Schelkle ILSI Europe BE

Publications

All Publications

The Role of Hazard- and Risk-Based Approaches in Ensuring Food Safety

Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2015;46(2) Part A:176-188. Supported by the following task forces: Emerging Microbiological Issues, Food Allergy, Food Intake Methodology, Novel Foods and Nanotechnology, Process Related Compounds and Natural Toxins, Risk Analysis in Food Microbiology, and Threshold of Toxicological Concern.

Read more

WP_Query Object
(
    [query] => Array
        (
            [post_type] => publication
            [posts_per_page] => 5
            [type] => 
            [area] => 
            [committee] => Food Intake Methodology
            [authors] => 
            [showtitle] => 
            [meta_query] => Array
                (
                    [relation] => AND
                )

            [tax_query] => Array
                (
                    [0] => Array
                        (
                            [taxonomy] => ilsi_committee
                            [field] => name
                            [terms] => Food Intake Methodology
                        )

                )

            [paged] => 1
            [meta_key] => _ilsi_date
            [orderby] => meta_value
            [order] => DESC
        )

    [query_vars] => Array
        (
            [post_type] => publication
            [posts_per_page] => 5
            [type] => 
            [area] => 
            [committee] => Food Intake Methodology
            [authors] => 
            [showtitle] => 
            [meta_query] => Array
                (
                    [relation] => AND
                )

            [tax_query] => Array
                (
                    [0] => Array
                        (
                            [taxonomy] => ilsi_committee
                            [field] => name
                            [terms] => Food Intake Methodology
                        )

                )

            [paged] => 1
            [meta_key] => _ilsi_date
            [orderby] => meta_value
            [order] => DESC
            [error] => 
            [m] => 
            [p] => 0
            [post_parent] => 
            [subpost] => 
            [subpost_id] => 
            [attachment] => 
            [attachment_id] => 0
            [name] => 
            [static] => 
            [pagename] => 
            [page_id] => 0
            [second] => 
            [minute] => 
            [hour] => 
            [day] => 0
            [monthnum] => 0
            [year] => 0
            [w] => 0
            [category_name] => 
            [tag] => 
            [cat] => 
            [tag_id] => 
            [author] => 
            [author_name] => 
            [feed] => 
            [tb] => 
            [meta_value] => 
            [preview] => 
            [s] => 
            [sentence] => 
            [title] => 
            [fields] => 
            [menu_order] => 
            [embed] => 
            [category__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [category__not_in] => Array
                (
                )

            [category__and] => Array
                (
                )

            [post__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [post__not_in] => Array
                (
                )

            [post_name__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [tag__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [tag__not_in] => Array
                (
                )

            [tag__and] => Array
                (
                )

            [tag_slug__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [tag_slug__and] => Array
                (
                )

            [post_parent__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [post_parent__not_in] => Array
                (
                )

            [author__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [author__not_in] => Array
                (
                )

            [ignore_sticky_posts] => 
            [suppress_filters] => 
            [cache_results] => 1
            [update_post_term_cache] => 1
            [lazy_load_term_meta] => 1
            [update_post_meta_cache] => 1
            [nopaging] => 
            [comments_per_page] => 50
            [no_found_rows] => 
            [taxonomy] => ilsi_committee
            [term_id] => Food Intake Methodology
        )

    [tax_query] => WP_Tax_Query Object
        (
            [queries] => Array
                (
                    [0] => Array
                        (
                            [taxonomy] => ilsi_committee
                            [terms] => Array
                                (
                                    [0] => Food Intake Methodology
                                )

                            [field] => name
                            [operator] => IN
                            [include_children] => 1
                        )

                )

            [relation] => AND
            [table_aliases:protected] => Array
                (
                    [0] => wp_3_term_relationships
                )

            [queried_terms] => Array
                (
                    [ilsi_committee] => Array
                        (
                            [terms] => Array
                                (
                                    [0] => Food Intake Methodology
                                )

                            [field] => name
                        )

                )

            [primary_table] => wp_3_posts
            [primary_id_column] => ID
        )

    [meta_query] => WP_Meta_Query Object
        (
            [queries] => Array
                (
                    [0] => Array
                        (
                            [key] => _ilsi_date
                        )

                    [relation] => OR
                )

            [relation] => AND
            [meta_table] => wp_3_postmeta
            [meta_id_column] => post_id
            [primary_table] => wp_3_posts
            [primary_id_column] => ID
            [table_aliases:protected] => Array
                (
                    [0] => wp_3_postmeta
                )

            [clauses:protected] => Array
                (
                    [wp_3_postmeta] => Array
                        (
                            [key] => _ilsi_date
                            [compare] => =
                            [alias] => wp_3_postmeta
                            [cast] => CHAR
                        )

                )

            [has_or_relation:protected] => 
        )

    [date_query] => 
    [request] => SELECT SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS  wp_3_posts.ID FROM wp_3_posts  LEFT JOIN wp_3_term_relationships ON (wp_3_posts.ID = wp_3_term_relationships.object_id) INNER JOIN wp_3_postmeta ON ( wp_3_posts.ID = wp_3_postmeta.post_id ) WHERE 1=1  AND ( 
  wp_3_term_relationships.term_taxonomy_id IN (21)
) AND ( 
  wp_3_postmeta.meta_key = '_ilsi_date'
) AND wp_3_posts.post_type = 'publication' AND (wp_3_posts.post_status = 'publish') GROUP BY wp_3_posts.ID ORDER BY wp_3_postmeta.meta_value DESC LIMIT 0, 5
    [posts] => Array
        (
            [0] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 2644
                    [post_author] => 24
                    [post_date] => 2016-07-26 09:26:42
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2016-07-26 09:26:42
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Recording of Fluid, Beverage and Water Intakes at the Population Level in Europe
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => recording-of-fluid-beverage-and-water-intakes-at-the-population-level-in-europe
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2016-09-21 10:05:41
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-09-21 10:05:41
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://ilsi.eu/?post_type=publication&p=2644
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => publication
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [1] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 55
                    [post_author] => 12
                    [post_date] => 2016-04-18 03:22:16
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2016-04-18 03:22:16
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => The Role of Hazard- and Risk-Based Approaches in Ensuring Food Safety
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => the-role-of-hazard-and-risk-based-approaches-in-ensuring-food-safety
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2016-09-21 10:10:49
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-09-21 10:10:49
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://ilsi.org/europe/?post_type=publication&p=55
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => publication
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [2] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 64
                    [post_author] => 12
                    [post_date] => 2016-04-18 03:08:58
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2016-04-18 03:08:58
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Assessing and Reporting Uncertainties in Dietary Exposure Analysis: Mapping of Uncertainties in a Tiered Approach
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => assessing-and-reporting-uncertainties-in-dietary-exposure-analysis-mapping-of-uncertainties-in-a-tiered-approach
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2016-06-20 17:08:37
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-06-20 17:08:37
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://ilsi.org/europe/?post_type=publication&p=64
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => publication
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [3] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 551
                    [post_author] => 12
                    [post_date] => 2016-05-10 10:18:32
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2016-05-10 10:18:32
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => GUIDEA: Guidance for Dietary Intake and Exposure Assessment—A New Resource for Exposure Assessment Professionals
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => guidea-guidance-for-dietary-intake-and-exposure-assessment-a-new-resource-for-exposure-assessment-professionals
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2016-06-20 17:11:49
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-06-20 17:11:49
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://ilsi.org/europe/?post_type=publication&p=551
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => publication
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [4] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1772
                    [post_author] => 12
                    [post_date] => 2016-06-20 15:40:46
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2016-06-20 15:40:46
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Use of Retailer Fidelity Card Schemes in the Assessment of Food Additive Intake: Sunset Yellow A Case Study
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => use-of-retailer-fidelity-card-schemes-in-the-assessment-of-food-additive-intake-sunset-yellow-a-case-study
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2016-06-22 18:46:10
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-06-22 18:46:10
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://ilsi.eu/?post_type=publication&p=1772
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => publication
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

        )

    [post_count] => 5
    [current_post] => -1
    [in_the_loop] => 
    [post] => WP_Post Object
        (
            [ID] => 2644
            [post_author] => 24
            [post_date] => 2016-07-26 09:26:42
            [post_date_gmt] => 2016-07-26 09:26:42
            [post_content] => 
            [post_title] => Recording of Fluid, Beverage and Water Intakes at the Population Level in Europe
            [post_excerpt] => 
            [post_status] => publish
            [comment_status] => closed
            [ping_status] => closed
            [post_password] => 
            [post_name] => recording-of-fluid-beverage-and-water-intakes-at-the-population-level-in-europe
            [to_ping] => 
            [pinged] => 
            [post_modified] => 2016-09-21 10:05:41
            [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-09-21 10:05:41
            [post_content_filtered] => 
            [post_parent] => 0
            [guid] => http://ilsi.eu/?post_type=publication&p=2644
            [menu_order] => 0
            [post_type] => publication
            [post_mime_type] => 
            [comment_count] => 0
            [filter] => raw
        )

    [comment_count] => 0
    [current_comment] => -1
    [found_posts] => 5
    [max_num_pages] => 1
    [max_num_comment_pages] => 0
    [is_single] => 
    [is_preview] => 
    [is_page] => 
    [is_archive] => 1
    [is_date] => 
    [is_year] => 
    [is_month] => 
    [is_day] => 
    [is_time] => 
    [is_author] => 
    [is_category] => 
    [is_tag] => 
    [is_tax] => 1
    [is_search] => 
    [is_feed] => 
    [is_comment_feed] => 
    [is_trackback] => 
    [is_home] => 
    [is_404] => 
    [is_embed] => 
    [is_paged] => 
    [is_admin] => 
    [is_attachment] => 
    [is_singular] => 
    [is_robots] => 
    [is_posts_page] => 
    [is_post_type_archive] => 
    [query_vars_hash:WP_Query:private] => 12c2c7dbbe02279944546d91cfff5b5f
    [query_vars_changed:WP_Query:private] => 
    [thumbnails_cached] => 
    [stopwords:WP_Query:private] => 
    [compat_fields:WP_Query:private] => Array
        (
            [0] => query_vars_hash
            [1] => query_vars_changed
        )

    [compat_methods:WP_Query:private] => Array
        (
            [0] => init_query_flags
            [1] => parse_tax_query
        )

)