Scientific Publications

ILSI Europe disseminates science by publishing articles on original research, literature reviews and gap analyses, and meeting proceedings in peer-reviewed journals.  ILSI Europe also publishes books, monographs, white papers, and other reports.

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Qualitative Fat Intake Task Force

NUTRITION SECURITY AND SOCIAL ASPECTS

This systematic review of randomised control trials (RCTs) is the first to investigate the role of individual dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) replacement on biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk.

Globally, dietary guidelines are aimed at the reduction of dietary saturated fatty acids in favour of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), with a general consensus that dietary SFAs should not exceed approximately 10% total energy intakes. This systematic review assessed the impact of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on the prevention of cardiometabolic disease.

Some local dietary guidelines (e.g., in France) are more specific by advising reduction of the recommended total intakes of individual types of SFAs in order to achieve greater positive impacts on cardiometabolic health.

Some evidence suggests that the sum of dietary lauric, myristic and palmitic acid should not exceed 8% total energy (TE) intake in adults.

This systematic review analyses data from trials which focused on traditional biomarkers of CMD risk such as fasting lipid profiles, markers of inflammation, hemostasis, glycemic control, or metabolic hormones.

The meta-analyses in this work found that the isoenergetic dietary replacement of at least 1.5%TE of palmitic acid with oleic acid or UFA for a duration of at least 14 days had significant beneficial impacts on lipid CMD risk markers in adults.

Impact of individual dietary saturated fatty acid replacement on circulating lipids and other biomarkers of cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs in humans

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses like the currently proposed one assess the available data with the aim of helping ground public health recommendations in scientific evidence. However, the current quantitative findings need to be interpreted with caution due to the presence of high statistical heterogeneity and low number of RCTs. Further RCTs designed to investigate different SFAs such as lauric and myristic acids and their impact on other clinical biomarkers of CMD risk are warranted.

Download the full-text open access article here

Scientific abstract Expand

Little is known of the impact of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and their isoenergetic substitution with other SFAs or unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) on the prevention of cardiometabolic disease (CMD). This systematic literature review (POSPERO registration: CRD42020084241) assessed the impact of such dietary substitutions on a range of fasting CMD risk markers, including lipid profile, markers of glycemic control and inflammation, and metabolic hormone concentrations. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated the effect of isoenergetic replacements of individual dietary SFAs for at least 14 days on one or more CMD risk markers in humans. Searches of PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane CENTRAL databases on 14th February 2021 identified 44 RCTs conducted in participants aged 39.9y (SD 15.2). Studies' risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool 2.0 for RCTs. Random-effect meta-analyses assessed the effect of at least three similar dietary substitutions on the same CMD risk marker. Other dietary interventions were described in qualitative syntheses. We observed reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations after the replacement of palmitic acid (C16:0) with UFA (-0.36 mmol/L, 95%CI [-0.50, -0.21], I2 = 96.0%, n = 18 RCTs) or oleic acid (C18:1) (-0.16 mmol/L, 95% CI [-0.28, -0.03], I2 = 89.6%, n = 9 RCTs), with a similar impact on total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations. No effects on other CMD risk markers, including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, insulin, or C-reactive protein concentrations, were evident. Similarly, we found no evidence of a benefit from replacing dietary stearic acid with UFA on CMD risk markers (n = 4 RCTs). In conclusion, the impact of replacing dietary palmitic acid with UFA on lipid biomarkers is aligned with current public health recommendations. However, due to the high heterogeneity and limited studies, relationships between all individual SFAs and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health need further confirmation from RCTs.

Keywords Expand

palmitic acidstearic acidmyristic acidmedium-chain fatty acidssaturated fatty acidsunsaturated fatty acidslipoproteinsfasting lipid profile, glucose, insulin

Number of full-text studies 683 reviewed as part of this analysis. Total energy intake recommended from saturated fatty acids 10% of less. Number of markers for health effects screened 6 including cardiometabolic and inflamation markers.

A more complete picture of the impact of dietary saturated fatty acids on metabolic health status would greatly contribute to the improvement of public health guidelines for the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

Categories

Nutrition
Public health
Nutrient intake
Macronutrients

[post_title] => Impact of individual dietary saturated fatty acid replacement on circulating lipids and other biomarkers of cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs in humans [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => impact-of-individual-dietary-saturated-fatty-acid-replacement-on-circulating-lipids-and-other-biomarkers-of-cardiometabolic-health-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-rcts-in-humans [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-06-15 07:53:20 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-06-15 07:53:20 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://ilsi.eu/?post_type=publication&p=10350 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publication [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [1] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 10456 [post_author] => 24 [post_date] => 2022-03-28 13:12:46 [post_date_gmt] => 2022-03-28 13:12:46 [post_content] =>

Early Nutrition and Long-Term Health

Nutrition and Brain Health

Nutrition, Immunity and Inflammation

Prebiotics

Probiotics

GUT MICROBIOME AND HEALTH and NUTRITION AND CONSUMER SCIENCE

The gut and brain link via various metabolic and signalling pathways, each with the potential to influence mental, brain and cognitive health. Over the past decade, the involvement of the gut microbiota in gut-brain communication has become the focus of increased scientific interest, establishing the microbiota-gut-brain axis as a field of research. There is a growing number of association studies exploring the gut microbiota's possible role in memory, learning, anxiety, stress, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Consequently, attention is now turning to how the microbiota can become the target of nutritional and therapeutic strategies for improved brain health and well-being. However, while such strategies that target the gut microbiota to influence brain health and function are currently under development with varying levels of success, still very little is yet known about the triggers and mechanisms underlying the gut microbiota's apparent influence on cognitive or brain function and most evidence comes from pre-clinical studies rather than well controlled clinical trials/investigations. Filling the knowledge gaps requires establishing a standardised methodology for human studies, including strong guidance for specific focus areas of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, the need for more extensive biological sample analyses, and identification of relevant biomarkers. Other urgent requirements are new advanced models for in vitro and in vivo studies of relevant mechanisms, and a greater focus on omics technologies with supporting bioinformatics resources (training, tools) to efficiently translate study findings, as well as the identification of relevant targets in study populations. The key to building a validated evidence base rely on increasing knowledge sharing and multi-disciplinary collaborations, along with continued public-private funding support. This will allow microbiota-gut-brain axis research to move to its next phase so we can identify realistic opportunities to modulate the microbiota for better brain health.

To download this open-access article, please click here.

This work was conducted in collaboration with the Early Nutrition and Long-Term Health, Nutrition and Brain Health, Nutrition, Immunity and Inflammation, Prebiotics and Probiotics Task Forces.

[post_title] => The microbiota–gut–brain axis: pathways to better brain health. Perspectives on what we know, what we need to investigate and how to put knowledge into practice [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-pathways-to-better-brain-health-perspectives-on-what-we-know-what-we-need-to-investigate-and-how-to-put-knowledge-into-practice [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-07-04 13:10:09 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-07-04 13:10:09 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://ilsi.eu/?post_type=publication&p=10456 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publication [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [2] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 10611 [post_author] => 24 [post_date] => 2022-03-29 12:31:37 [post_date_gmt] => 2022-03-29 12:31:37 [post_content] =>

Packaging Materials Task Force

SMART PACKAGING

There are numerous approaches and methodologies for assessing the identity and quantities of non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) in food contact materials (FCMs). They can give different results and it can be difficult to make meaningful comparisons. The initial approach was to attempt to prepare a prescriptive methodology but as this proved impossible; this paper develops guidelines that need to be taken into consideration when assessing NIAS. Different approaches to analysing NIAS in FCMs are reviewed and compared. The approaches for preparing the sample for analysis, recommended procedures for screening, identification, and quantification of NIAS as well as the reporting requirements are outlined. Different analytical equipment and procedures are compared. Limitations of today's capabilities are raised along with some research needs.

Link to download the full-text

Keywords Expand

Food contact materials; NIAS; chromatographic methods; food packaging; migration; non-intentionally added substances; plastics

[post_title] => Guidance in selecting analytical techniques for identification and quantification of non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) in food contact materials (FCMS) [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => guidance-in-selecting-analytical-techniques-for-identification-and-quantification-of-non-intentionally-added-substances-nias-in-food-contact-materials-fcms [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-06-15 07:54:30 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-06-15 07:54:30 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://ilsi.eu/?post_type=publication&p=10611 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publication [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [3] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 10634 [post_author] => 24 [post_date] => 2022-04-07 15:28:06 [post_date_gmt] => 2022-04-07 15:28:06 [post_content] =>

Health Benefits Assessment of Foods

GUT MICROBIOME AND HEALTH

We performed a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression to determine if increasing daily protein ingestion contributes to gaining lean body mass (LBM), muscle strength, and physical/functional test performance in healthy subjects. A protocol for the present study was registered (PROSPERO, CRD42020159001), and a systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Sciences databases was undertaken. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) where participants increased their daily protein intake and were healthy and non-obese adults were included. Research questions focused on the main effects on the outcomes of interest and subgroup analysis, splitting the studies by participation in a resistance exercise (RE), age (<65 or ≥65 years old), and levels of daily protein ingestion. Three-level random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions were conducted on data from 74 RCT. Most of the selected studies tested the effects of additional protein ingestion during RE training. The evidence suggests that increasing daily protein ingestion may enhance gains in LBM in studies enrolling subjects in RE (SMD [standardized mean difference] = 0.22, 95% CI [95% confidence interval] 0.14:0.30, P < 0.01, 62 studies, moderate level of evidence). The effect on LBM was significant in subjects ≥65 years old ingesting 1.2-1.59 g of protein/kg/day and for younger subjects (<65 years old) ingesting ≥1.6 g of protein/kg/day submitted to RE. Lower-body strength gain was slightly higher by additional protein ingestion at ≥1.6 g of protein/kg/day during RE training (SMD = 0.40, 95% CI 0.09:0.35, P < 0.01, 19 studies, low level of evidence). Bench press strength is slightly increased by ingesting more protein in <65 years old subjects during RE training (SMD = 0.18, 95% CI 0.03:0.33, P = 0.01, 32 studies, low level of evidence). The effects of ingesting more protein are unclear when assessing handgrip strength and only marginal for performance in physical function tests. In conclusion, increasing daily protein ingestion results in small additional gains in LBM and lower body muscle strength gains in healthy adults enrolled in resistance exercise training. There is a slight effect on bench press strength and minimal effect performance in physical function tests. The effect on handgrip strength is unclear.

To download this open-access article, please click here.

This work was commissioned by the Health Benefits Assessment of Foods Task Force.

[post_title] => Systematic review and meta-analysis of protein intake to support muscle mass and function in healthy adultsSystematic review and meta-analysis of protein intake to support muscle mass and function in healthy adults [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-protein-intake-to-support-muscle-mass-and-function-in-healthy-adults [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-07-20 12:34:57 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-07-20 12:34:57 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://ilsi.eu/?post_type=publication&p=10634 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publication [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [4] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 10609 [post_author] => 24 [post_date] => 2022-03-29 08:35:38 [post_date_gmt] => 2022-03-29 08:35:38 [post_content] =>

Food Contaminants Task Force

FOOD RELATED CONTAMINANTS

The "totality" of the human exposure is conceived to encompass life-associated endogenous and exogenous aggregate exposures. Process-related contaminants (PRCs) are not only formed in foods by heat processing, but also occur endogenously in the organism as physiological components of energy metabolism, potentially also generated by the human microbiome. To arrive at a comprehensive risk assessment, it is necessary to understand the contribution of in vivo background occurrence as compared to the ingestion from exogenous sources. Hence, this review provides an overview of the knowledge on the contribution of endogenous exposure to the overall exposure to putative genotoxic food contaminants, namely ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acrylamide, acrolein, α,β-unsaturated alkenals, glycation compounds, N-nitroso compounds, ethylene oxide, furans, 2- and 3-MCPD, and glycidyl esters. The evidence discussed herein allows to conclude that endogenous formation of some contaminants appears to contribute substantially to the exposome. This is of critical importance for risk assessment in the cases where endogenous exposure is suspected to outweigh the exogenous one (e.g. formaldehyde and acrolein).

Link to download the full-text

Keywords Expand

Endogenous exposure; Exposome; Genotoxins; Process-related contaminants

[post_title] => The role of endogenous versus exogenous sources in the exposome of putative genotoxins and consequences for risk assessment [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => closed [ping_status] => closed [post_password] => [post_name] => the-role-of-endogenous-versus-exogenous-sources-in-the-exposome-of-putative-genotoxins-and-consequences-for-risk-assessment [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-06-15 07:51:00 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-06-15 07:51:00 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://ilsi.eu/?post_type=publication&p=10609 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => publication [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) ) [post_count] => 5 [current_post] => -1 [in_the_loop] => [post] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 10350 [post_author] => 343 [post_date] => 2021-11-30 06:52:57 [post_date_gmt] => 2021-11-30 06:52:57 [post_content] =>

Qualitative Fat Intake Task Force

NUTRITION SECURITY AND SOCIAL ASPECTS

This systematic review of randomised control trials (RCTs) is the first to investigate the role of individual dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) replacement on biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk.

Globally, dietary guidelines are aimed at the reduction of dietary saturated fatty acids in favour of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), with a general consensus that dietary SFAs should not exceed approximately 10% total energy intakes. This systematic review assessed the impact of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on the prevention of cardiometabolic disease.

Some local dietary guidelines (e.g., in France) are more specific by advising reduction of the recommended total intakes of individual types of SFAs in order to achieve greater positive impacts on cardiometabolic health.

Some evidence suggests that the sum of dietary lauric, myristic and palmitic acid should not exceed 8% total energy (TE) intake in adults.

This systematic review analyses data from trials which focused on traditional biomarkers of CMD risk such as fasting lipid profiles, markers of inflammation, hemostasis, glycemic control, or metabolic hormones.

The meta-analyses in this work found that the isoenergetic dietary replacement of at least 1.5%TE of palmitic acid with oleic acid or UFA for a duration of at least 14 days had significant beneficial impacts on lipid CMD risk markers in adults.

Impact of individual dietary saturated fatty acid replacement on circulating lipids and other biomarkers of cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs in humans

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses like the currently proposed one assess the available data with the aim of helping ground public health recommendations in scientific evidence. However, the current quantitative findings need to be interpreted with caution due to the presence of high statistical heterogeneity and low number of RCTs. Further RCTs designed to investigate different SFAs such as lauric and myristic acids and their impact on other clinical biomarkers of CMD risk are warranted.

Download the full-text open access article here

Scientific abstract Expand

Little is known of the impact of individual saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and their isoenergetic substitution with other SFAs or unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) on the prevention of cardiometabolic disease (CMD). This systematic literature review (POSPERO registration: CRD42020084241) assessed the impact of such dietary substitutions on a range of fasting CMD risk markers, including lipid profile, markers of glycemic control and inflammation, and metabolic hormone concentrations. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated the effect of isoenergetic replacements of individual dietary SFAs for at least 14 days on one or more CMD risk markers in humans. Searches of PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane CENTRAL databases on 14th February 2021 identified 44 RCTs conducted in participants aged 39.9y (SD 15.2). Studies' risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool 2.0 for RCTs. Random-effect meta-analyses assessed the effect of at least three similar dietary substitutions on the same CMD risk marker. Other dietary interventions were described in qualitative syntheses. We observed reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations after the replacement of palmitic acid (C16:0) with UFA (-0.36 mmol/L, 95%CI [-0.50, -0.21], I2 = 96.0%, n = 18 RCTs) or oleic acid (C18:1) (-0.16 mmol/L, 95% CI [-0.28, -0.03], I2 = 89.6%, n = 9 RCTs), with a similar impact on total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations. No effects on other CMD risk markers, including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, insulin, or C-reactive protein concentrations, were evident. Similarly, we found no evidence of a benefit from replacing dietary stearic acid with UFA on CMD risk markers (n = 4 RCTs). In conclusion, the impact of replacing dietary palmitic acid with UFA on lipid biomarkers is aligned with current public health recommendations. However, due to the high heterogeneity and limited studies, relationships between all individual SFAs and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health need further confirmation from RCTs.

Keywords Expand

palmitic acidstearic acidmyristic acidmedium-chain fatty acidssaturated fatty acidsunsaturated fatty acidslipoproteinsfasting lipid profile, glucose, insulin

Number of full-text studies 683 reviewed as part of this analysis. Total energy intake recommended from saturated fatty acids 10% of less. Number of markers for health effects screened 6 including cardiometabolic and inflamation markers.

A more complete picture of the impact of dietary saturated fatty acids on metabolic health status would greatly contribute to the improvement of public health guidelines for the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

Categories

Nutrition
Public health
Nutrient intake
Macronutrients

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