Understanding how to improve appetite control and energy balance

Background

Efficacious products coupled with clear and effective guidance can help consumers with appetite control and energy balance. But which specific food characteristics are impacting satiety and energy intake the most? What are the preferred methodologies and study designs for substantiating their efficacy? What do consumers expect from health claims in the area of satiety and energy balance, and how do they perceive them? These are some of the questions being addressed by the Eating Behaviour and Energy Balance Task Force.

Objectives

The task force aims to evaluate the scientific underpinning for routes to achieve better appetite control and improved energy balance, as well as which methods are most appropriate when studying eating behaviour. The overall goal is to improve the communication to consumers and guide the development of healthier diets.

Impact

  • For the first time, the totality of the evidence on the effect of low-energy sweeteners on energy intake and body weight has been considered in a systematic review and meta-analysis of human and animal research (P. Rogers et al., 2016). The task force will present the review outcomes at the IUNS 21st ICN Congress of Nutrition, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 15-20 October 2017, in the session on ‘Low-Calorie Sweeteners – Update on Health & Safety’ organised by ILSI North America.
  • The potential benefits of enhanced satiety have recently been reviewed (M.M. Hetherington et al., 2013). Levels of evidence varied for different outcomes (e.g. convincing evidence of short-term satiety benefits to hunger management, possible evidence of benefits to mood and cognition, inadequate evidence that satiety enhancement can promote weight loss).
  • The report on the 2012 ILSI Europe workshop ‘Satiety and Appetite Control Claims: Getting it Right for Consumers’ concluded that consumers could benefit from satiety enhancement in different ways. Research indicates that most consumers understand that claims for such effects of products do not imply a single, simple solution to weight management (S. Griffioen-Roose et al., 2013).

What’s New

  • A new activity proposal on Identifying the Main Food-Related Parameters that Act to Improve the Satiety Response to Food’ is under preparation for scientific review. The activity plans to link food characteristics, satisfaction, and satiety to understand better how they can be manipulated towards a healthy eating behaviour.

For more detailed information, please contact Dr Cyril Marsaux at cmarsaux@ilsieurope.be

Task Force Members

Expert Groups

Workshop – Dietary Sweetness: Is It an Issue?

Objectives

Humans have an inborn liking and desire for sweetness that is persistent throughout all ethnic groups and cultures. Changes can be seen in the characteristics of liking and motivation for sweetness as we progress through life. Today, however, human attraction to sweet sources of energy is seen as a potential risk factor for developing less healthy eating patterns. In this context, there is often a failure to distinguish between putative effects of exposure to sources of sweetness (e.g. free sugars in the diet) and the effects of exposure to sweetness itself. This workshop, jointly organised with the Dietary Carbohydrates Task Force, intends to assess the evidence base linking sweetness with health and dietary preferences throughout all life stages.

Activity

The workshop on ‘Dietary Sweetness: Is It an Issue?’ aims to encompass the great variety of scientific issues associated with this topic. It will, for instance, address the relationships of variation in sweetness perception and exposure with food preference, diet quality and energy balance.

Expected Output

This workshop will bring together experts from different fields to identify research gaps and needs. The outcomes of this event will be summarised in a short publication in a scientific journal. A follow-up expert group might be created to address workshop conclusions. 

Physiological and Behavioural Adaptation to Dietary Enhancement of Satiety: Evidence and Timeframes

Objectives

How long should research studies run in order to give confidence in the sustained efficacy of interventions with supposed appetite-related benefits? There needs to be a balance between carrying out studies for a ‘sufficiently’ long period to support sustained efficacy against the costs, feasibility and subject retention and compliance issues arising with longer clinical testing periods. There is currently no objective basis for selecting an appropriate duration of sustained exposure. The aim of this activity is to systematically review the literature on testing satiety effects over sustained exposures and, from this, suggest evidence-based guidance on appropriate exposure durations for studying effects of diet / foods with putative benefits for satiety and energy intake.

Activity

This expert group is currently carrying out the systematic identification and review of research where acute effects of food or ingredients on satiety and energy intake have been assessed with repeated, sustained exposures. Based on the totality of evidence, types of interventions that appear to be resistant to or influenced by adapting mechanisms will be indicated. Corresponding timeframes as well as implications for research and guidance will be highlighted.

Expected Output

The output is meant to underpin guidance that can be applied in designing studies which are used as selection criteria for reviews, and in regulatory evaluation of products and health claim substantiation data. It will ensure the validity of scientific conclusions and secure consumer confidence in claims.

Physical-Chemical Properties of Dietary Fibre Relevant to Appetite-Related Mechanisms and Outcomes

Objectives

Dietary fibre is often recommended for appetite control, but not all fibres are equally effective for this purpose. Currently, there is no complete and authoritative overview that assesses which properties are most relevant. This activity focuses on the physical and chemical properties of dietary fibres relevant to appetite-related mechanisms and outcomes.

Activity

The activity aims to identify research testing the properties of dietary fibres potentially relevant for different appetite-related mechanisms, with evidence of their impact.

Expected Output

An evidence-based systematic review of the properties of fibre most relevant for appetite-related outcomes will soon be submitted for publication. When published this work will improve the ability to predict, test and select specific fibres with desired effects. It will also help in harmonising the characterisation of fibres and reporting in future studies.

Expert Group Members

Dietary Sweetness: Is It an Issue?

Physiological and Behavioural Adaptation to Dietary Enhancement of Satiety: Evidence and Timeframes

Physical-Chemical Properties of Dietary Fibre Relevant to Appetite-Related Mechanisms and Outcomes

Publications

All Publications

WP_Query Object
(
    [query] => Array
        (
            [post_type] => publication
            [posts_per_page] => 5
            [type] => 
            [area] => 
            [committee] => Eating Behaviour and Energy Balance
            [authors] => 
            [showtitle] => 
            [meta_query] => Array
                (
                    [relation] => AND
                )

            [tax_query] => Array
                (
                    [0] => Array
                        (
                            [taxonomy] => ilsi_committee
                            [field] => name
                            [terms] => Eating Behaviour and Energy Balance
                        )

                )

            [paged] => 1
            [meta_key] => _ilsi_date
            [orderby] => meta_value
            [order] => DESC
        )

    [query_vars] => Array
        (
            [post_type] => publication
            [posts_per_page] => 5
            [type] => 
            [area] => 
            [committee] => Eating Behaviour and Energy Balance
            [authors] => 
            [showtitle] => 
            [meta_query] => Array
                (
                    [relation] => AND
                )

            [tax_query] => Array
                (
                    [0] => Array
                        (
                            [taxonomy] => ilsi_committee
                            [field] => name
                            [terms] => Eating Behaviour and Energy Balance
                        )

                )

            [paged] => 1
            [meta_key] => _ilsi_date
            [orderby] => meta_value
            [order] => DESC
            [error] => 
            [m] => 
            [p] => 0
            [post_parent] => 
            [subpost] => 
            [subpost_id] => 
            [attachment] => 
            [attachment_id] => 0
            [name] => 
            [static] => 
            [pagename] => 
            [page_id] => 0
            [second] => 
            [minute] => 
            [hour] => 
            [day] => 0
            [monthnum] => 0
            [year] => 0
            [w] => 0
            [category_name] => 
            [tag] => 
            [cat] => 
            [tag_id] => 
            [author] => 
            [author_name] => 
            [feed] => 
            [tb] => 
            [meta_value] => 
            [preview] => 
            [s] => 
            [sentence] => 
            [title] => 
            [fields] => 
            [menu_order] => 
            [embed] => 
            [category__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [category__not_in] => Array
                (
                )

            [category__and] => Array
                (
                )

            [post__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [post__not_in] => Array
                (
                )

            [post_name__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [tag__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [tag__not_in] => Array
                (
                )

            [tag__and] => Array
                (
                )

            [tag_slug__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [tag_slug__and] => Array
                (
                )

            [post_parent__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [post_parent__not_in] => Array
                (
                )

            [author__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [author__not_in] => Array
                (
                )

            [ignore_sticky_posts] => 
            [suppress_filters] => 
            [cache_results] => 1
            [update_post_term_cache] => 1
            [lazy_load_term_meta] => 1
            [update_post_meta_cache] => 1
            [nopaging] => 
            [comments_per_page] => 50
            [no_found_rows] => 
            [taxonomy] => ilsi_committee
            [term_id] => Eating Behaviour and Energy Balance
        )

    [tax_query] => WP_Tax_Query Object
        (
            [queries] => Array
                (
                    [0] => Array
                        (
                            [taxonomy] => ilsi_committee
                            [terms] => Array
                                (
                                    [0] => Eating Behaviour and Energy Balance
                                )

                            [field] => name
                            [operator] => IN
                            [include_children] => 1
                        )

                )

            [relation] => AND
            [table_aliases:protected] => Array
                (
                    [0] => wp_3_term_relationships
                )

            [queried_terms] => Array
                (
                    [ilsi_committee] => Array
                        (
                            [terms] => Array
                                (
                                    [0] => Eating Behaviour and Energy Balance
                                )

                            [field] => name
                        )

                )

            [primary_table] => wp_3_posts
            [primary_id_column] => ID
        )

    [meta_query] => WP_Meta_Query Object
        (
            [queries] => Array
                (
                    [0] => Array
                        (
                            [key] => _ilsi_date
                        )

                    [relation] => OR
                )

            [relation] => AND
            [meta_table] => wp_3_postmeta
            [meta_id_column] => post_id
            [primary_table] => wp_3_posts
            [primary_id_column] => ID
            [table_aliases:protected] => Array
                (
                    [0] => wp_3_postmeta
                )

            [clauses:protected] => Array
                (
                    [wp_3_postmeta] => Array
                        (
                            [key] => _ilsi_date
                            [compare] => =
                            [alias] => wp_3_postmeta
                            [cast] => CHAR
                        )

                )

            [has_or_relation:protected] => 
        )

    [date_query] => 
    [request] => SELECT SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS  wp_3_posts.ID FROM wp_3_posts  LEFT JOIN wp_3_term_relationships ON (wp_3_posts.ID = wp_3_term_relationships.object_id) INNER JOIN wp_3_postmeta ON ( wp_3_posts.ID = wp_3_postmeta.post_id ) WHERE 1=1  AND ( 
  wp_3_term_relationships.term_taxonomy_id IN (19)
) AND ( 
  wp_3_postmeta.meta_key = '_ilsi_date'
) AND wp_3_posts.post_type = 'publication' AND (wp_3_posts.post_status = 'publish') GROUP BY wp_3_posts.ID ORDER BY wp_3_postmeta.meta_value DESC LIMIT 0, 5
    [posts] => Array
        (
            [0] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 54
                    [post_author] => 12
                    [post_date] => 2016-04-18 03:23:09
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2016-04-18 03:23:09
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Does Low-Energy Sweetener Consumption Affect Energy Intake and Body Weight? A Systematic Review, Including Meta-Analyses, of the Evidence From Human and Animal Studies
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => does-low-energy-sweetener-consumption-affect-energy-intake-and-body-weight-a-systematic-review-including-meta-analyses-of-the-evidence-from-human-and-animal-studies
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2016-09-01 14:03:05
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-09-01 14:03:05
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://ilsi.org/europe/?post_type=publication&p=54
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => publication
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [1] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 556
                    [post_author] => 12
                    [post_date] => 2016-05-10 10:34:42
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2016-05-10 10:34:42
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Potential Benefits of Satiety to the Consumer: Scientific Considerations
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => potential-benefits-of-satiety-to-the-consumer-scientific-considerations
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2016-06-20 17:11:22
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-06-20 17:11:22
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://ilsi.org/europe/?post_type=publication&p=556
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => publication
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [2] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 559
                    [post_author] => 12
                    [post_date] => 2016-05-10 10:41:53
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2016-05-10 10:41:53
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Satiety and Appetite Control Claims: Getting It Right for Consumers
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => satiety-and-appetite-control-claims-getting-it-right-for-consumers
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2017-01-20 10:05:50
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2017-01-20 10:05:50
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://ilsi.org/europe/?post_type=publication&p=559
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => publication
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

            [3] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 1657
                    [post_author] => 12
                    [post_date] => 2016-06-15 15:38:55
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2016-06-15 15:38:55
                    [post_content] => 
                    [post_title] => Consumer Understanding, Interpretation and Perceived Levels of Personal Responsibility in Relation to Satiety-Related Claims
                    [post_excerpt] => 
                    [post_status] => publish
                    [comment_status] => closed
                    [ping_status] => closed
                    [post_password] => 
                    [post_name] => consumer-understanding-interpretation-and-perceived-levels-of-personal-responsibility-in-relation-to-satiety-related-claims
                    [to_ping] => 
                    [pinged] => 
                    [post_modified] => 2016-06-15 15:38:55
                    [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-06-15 15:38:55
                    [post_content_filtered] => 
                    [post_parent] => 0
                    [guid] => http://ilsi.eu/?post_type=publication&p=1657
                    [menu_order] => 0
                    [post_type] => publication
                    [post_mime_type] => 
                    [comment_count] => 0
                    [filter] => raw
                )

        )

    [post_count] => 4
    [current_post] => -1
    [in_the_loop] => 
    [post] => WP_Post Object
        (
            [ID] => 54
            [post_author] => 12
            [post_date] => 2016-04-18 03:23:09
            [post_date_gmt] => 2016-04-18 03:23:09
            [post_content] => 
            [post_title] => Does Low-Energy Sweetener Consumption Affect Energy Intake and Body Weight? A Systematic Review, Including Meta-Analyses, of the Evidence From Human and Animal Studies
            [post_excerpt] => 
            [post_status] => publish
            [comment_status] => closed
            [ping_status] => closed
            [post_password] => 
            [post_name] => does-low-energy-sweetener-consumption-affect-energy-intake-and-body-weight-a-systematic-review-including-meta-analyses-of-the-evidence-from-human-and-animal-studies
            [to_ping] => 
            [pinged] => 
            [post_modified] => 2016-09-01 14:03:05
            [post_modified_gmt] => 2016-09-01 14:03:05
            [post_content_filtered] => 
            [post_parent] => 0
            [guid] => http://ilsi.org/europe/?post_type=publication&p=54
            [menu_order] => 0
            [post_type] => publication
            [post_mime_type] => 
            [comment_count] => 0
            [filter] => raw
        )

    [comment_count] => 0
    [current_comment] => -1
    [found_posts] => 4
    [max_num_pages] => 1
    [max_num_comment_pages] => 0
    [is_single] => 
    [is_preview] => 
    [is_page] => 
    [is_archive] => 1
    [is_date] => 
    [is_year] => 
    [is_month] => 
    [is_day] => 
    [is_time] => 
    [is_author] => 
    [is_category] => 
    [is_tag] => 
    [is_tax] => 1
    [is_search] => 
    [is_feed] => 
    [is_comment_feed] => 
    [is_trackback] => 
    [is_home] => 
    [is_404] => 
    [is_embed] => 
    [is_paged] => 
    [is_admin] => 
    [is_attachment] => 
    [is_singular] => 
    [is_robots] => 
    [is_posts_page] => 
    [is_post_type_archive] => 
    [query_vars_hash:WP_Query:private] => 495044468ffe1e896153167816b81625
    [query_vars_changed:WP_Query:private] => 
    [thumbnails_cached] => 
    [stopwords:WP_Query:private] => 
    [compat_fields:WP_Query:private] => Array
        (
            [0] => query_vars_hash
            [1] => query_vars_changed
        )

    [compat_methods:WP_Query:private] => Array
        (
            [0] => init_query_flags
            [1] => parse_tax_query
        )

)