Understanding how to improve appetite control and energy balance

Background

In light of the increasing burden of obesity and other chronic diseases on public health and budgets, it is important to understand various factors that impact satiety and energy balance as well as provide guidance for optimised methodologies to assess the impact of those factors on measures of satiety. Which specific food characteristics are likely to impact satiety and energy intake the most? What are the preferred methodologies and study designs for substantiating their efficacy? These are some of the questions being addressed by the Eating Behaviour and Energy Balance Task Force.

Upcoming

The new activity proposal on ‘Identifying key food physical characteristics and sensory attributes that improve satiety responses to food’ is under scientific review. This activity plans to evaluate which key food physical characteristics (e.g. volume, texture) and sensory attributes (e.g. taste, aromas, texture, etc.) improve satiety most, taking into account food appreciation (liking, palatability).

What’s New

The task force has published a new systematic review of characteristics of dietary fibres relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials, in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (K. Poutanen et al., 2017)

Objectives

The task force aims to evaluate the scientific underpinning for routes to achieve better appetite control and improved energy balance, as well as assess most appropriate methods for studying eating behaviour. Efficacious products coupled with clear and effective guidance can help consumers with appetite control and energy balance. The task force strives to bridge the gaps in our current scientific understanding, in order to improve the current guidelines for research and ultimately food formulations.

Impact

  • The task force has reviewed the totality of the evidence on the effect of low-energy sweeteners on energy intake and body weight in a systematic review and meta-analysis of human and animal research (P. Rogers et al., 2016). It has already been cited 59 times.
  • The work of the task force is disseminated at major international conferences (e.g. FENS 2015, ISDN 2016, ICFSN 2017, IUNS-ICN 2017).

For more detailed information, please contact Dr Cyril Marsaux at cmarsaux@ilsieurope.be

Task Force Members


* Scientific Advisor

Expert Groups

Physiological and Behavioural Adaptation to Dietary Enhancement of Satiety: Evidence and Timeframes

Objectives

How long should research studies run in order to give confidence in the sustained efficacy of interventions with supposed appetite-related benefits? There needs to be a balance between carrying out studies for a ‘sufficiently’ long period to support sustained efficacy against the costs, feasibility and subject retention and compliance issues arising with longer clinical testing periods. There is currently no objective basis for selecting an appropriate duration of sustained exposure. The aim of this activity is to systematically review the literature on testing satiety effects over sustained exposures and, from this, suggest evidence-based guidance on appropriate exposure durations for studying effects of diet/foods with putative benefits for satiety and energy intake.

Activity

This expert group is currently carrying out the systematic identification and review of research where acute effects of food or ingredients on satiety and energy intake have been assessed with repeated, sustained exposures. Based on the totality of evidence, types of interventions that appear to be resistant to or influenced by adapting mechanisms will be indicated. Corresponding timeframes as well as implications for research and guidance will be highlighted.

Expected Output

The output is meant to underpin guidance that can be applied in designing studies which are used as selection criteria for reviews, and in regulatory evaluation of products and health claim substantiation data. It will ensure the validity of scientific conclusions and secure consumer confidence in claims.

Physical-Chemical Properties of Dietary Fibre Relevant to Appetite-Related Mechanisms and Outcomes

Objectives

Dietary fibre is often recommended for appetite control, but not all fibres are equally effective for this purpose and there is no complete and authoritative overview on the topic.

Activity

This expert group set out to review the properties of fibre most relevant for appetite-related outcomes, and to develop recommendations on how dietary fibre should be characterised and what should be reported at a minimum when doing research using dietary fibre.

Expected Output

The expert group recently published an evidence-based systematic review of the characteristics of dietary fibres relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials (Manuscript 1, K. Poutanen et al., 2017). The experts are now developing guidelines for characterisation of fibres and reporting in nutrition research (Manuscript 2).

Workshop – Dietary Sweetness: Is It an Issue?
In collaboration with the Dietary Carbohydrates Task Force

Objectives

Humans have an inborn liking and desire for sweetness that is persistent in all ethnic groups and cultures. Changes can be seen in the characteristics of liking and motivation for sweetness as we progress through life. Today, however, human attraction to sweet sources of energy is seen as a potential risk for developing less healthy eating patterns. In this context, there is often a failure to distinguish between putative effects of exposure to sources of sweetness (e.g. free sugars in the diet) and the effects of exposure to sweetness itself. This workshop assessed the evidence base linking sweetness with health and dietary preferences throughout life stages.

Activity

The workshop on ‘Dietary Sweetness: Is It an Issue?’ brought together international experts from different fields to discuss the great variety of scientific issues associated with this topic. Among them, it for instance addressed the relationships of variation in sweetness perception and exposure with food preference, diet quality and energy balance.

Expected Output

The workshop outcomes will be summarised in a peer-reviewed publication. 

Expert Group Members

Physiological and Behavioural Adaptation to Dietary Enhancement of Satiety: Evidence and Timeframes

Physical-Chemical Properties of Dietary Fibre Relevant to Appetite-Related Mechanisms and Outcomes

Dietary Sweetness: Is It an Issue?

Publications

All Publications

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