Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2016;56(4):541-590
Around 366 million people worldwide have diabetes and this is projected to reach 552 million by 2030. This review clearly shows that dietary components can have significant effects on blood glucose modulation. More prevention, including nutritional advises, might limit this dramatic increase of diabetes and therefore its impact on health and longevity of the population.
Around 366 million people worldwide have diabetes and this is projected to reach 552 million by 2030. Diabetes is a leading cause of death in developed countries and is predicted to become epidemic in newly industrialised nations. Additionally, poorly controlled diabetes is a major factor in several serious disorders including macrovascular disease, vision loss, renal failure, neuropathy and amputations. Nutritional management of blood glucose levels is a strategic target in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To implement such an approach it is essential to understand the effect of food on glycaemic regulation and on the underlying metabolic derangements.
This comprehensive review summarises the results from human dietary interventions exploring the impact of dietary components on blood glucose levels. The major macronutrients are included; carbohydrate, protein and fat, micronutrient vitamins and minerals, non-nutrient phytochemicals and additional foods including low-calorie sweeteners, vinegar and alcohol. Based on the evidence presented in this review, it is clear that dietary components have significant and clinically relevant effects on blood glucose modulation. An integrated approach that includes reducing excess body weight, increased physical activity along with a dietary regime to regulate blood glucose levels will not only be advantages in T2DM management, but will benefit the health of the population and limit the increasing worldwide incidence of T2DM. New emphasis on prevention might limit the dramatic worldwide increase in the incidence of T2DM expected in the next decades which is also going to impact on health and longevity of the population.
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This work was commissed by the Obesity and Diabetes Task Force. For more information, click here.
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